an image of the front of the Supreme Court building with a guard standing to the left
Effective: January 2017


Most links are provided to inform you, give context, and to verify accuracy. Even with good intentions here, it is not always possible to ensure the content or accuracy of another web site, and it is not always possible to know whether a link has been hijacked and directs you some place else. Please report any problems related to links so the problem can be investigated and solved.

Most of the links shared on this web site are independent and non-commercial, but a few help support the web site if you use the link to make a purchase. For instance, Regarding Gardening participates in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to It also participates in other programs and arrangements that are similar.


Do not assume that the pictures and text here are public property! Not everything is okay to reuse yourself. If you wish to know, ask! Some pictures and text are public, but certainly not everything! You can assume that anything written, published, or created more than 70 years ago, or 95, or 120 (it depends, see here) is no longer protected by copyright. For instance, a painting or a poem that old would no longer have author’s rights protection. In some cases, people have written things, created art, or taken pictures that they have made public and allowed people in general to reuse, such as with Creative Commons designations.

Documentation is fundamental to science and scholarship because it is a way to trace ideas and ensure accuracy. I try to give credit where it is due and seek permission where it is necessary. If something is yours or you hold rights that you see violated here, please let me know so we can agree to terms of use or I can remove it. In short, let me know about problems involving copyright or intellectual property and we’ll fix the problem.


I try not to misrepresent other peoples’ words or actions. As a scientist, I value facts and the truth. In that spirit, I also try to allow people to discuss topics and share facts here.

It’s okay to link to any part of the web site or share links in tweets and other social media. It’s not okay to misrepresent or present in a distorted manner any information here. It’s not okay to mine this web site for data or to collect, reproduce, and resell parts of it.

It’s not okay to use any software or device to interfere with the operation of this web site. You will not do anything knowingly and on purpose that keeps it from working properly or that imposes a disproportionate load of traffic or in another way causes the web site to “crash.” You will be held legally responsible for your actions if you do.


This web site is intended for a general audience, which means that it is appropriate for teens and adults. does not provide services or sell products to children. If you are under 18, it is best to let a parent or legal guardian know you are browsing here or doing any shopping to make sure it’s okay. If you are under 13, don’t provide any personal information to this web site or to any of its visitors. This means do not sign up for e-mails, give your phone number, or anything like that.

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This privacy policy tells how your personal information is collected, used, and protected. Please read it. Because the worldwide web is an evolving medium, the terms here may change in the future. Any changes made will be put here and dated. If you continue to use the web site after changes are posted, it means you accept the new Privacy Policy and consent to its terms. Got it? We’re not done . . .

Whenever you visit this web site,, it means you accept this policy and agree to its terms. In particular, this means you know that your personal information can be collected and used as described here and you agree to it. Your use of this web site is governed by this Privacy Policy. This means any disputes over privacy will be settled according to these terms.


Most web sites, including this one, automatically record certain information about visitors. What gets collected? General stuff such as when you browsed, the web site you came from prior to visiting this one, the website you go to when you leave this one, and technical stuff: your IP address, your computer’s operating system, and the type of web browser you are using.

Then there’s the information you may give, such as your name, e-mail address, USDA zone, ZIP code, age, hate for deer, or other things that you tell. The personal information you give and the type that is collected automatically may be combined and analyzed to make the web site more effective in reaching an audience and addressing the needs of gardeners such as you.


Technologies such as cookies, beacons, and scripts may be used by this web site and by marketing, advertising and support partners. What are they doing? These technologies help administer the site, analyze trends, track how people move around, and gather demographic information about the audience the web site is reaching. Reports based on the use of these technologies may be done on an individual basis as well as aggregated.

Shopping carts almost always use cookies to authenticate the user and to keep settings you might make. People can always control the use of cookies individually; this is done on your browser. If you reject cookies, it can potentially interfere with your ability to use this site. Sorry about that! I enjoy the chocolate chip kind, but the electronic kind are nearly as essential to modern life, aren’t they?

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